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XSLT Recipes for Interacting with XML Data

XSLT Recipes for Interacting with XML Data

August 13, 2003

In last month's column, "The Document is the Database", I sketched out an approach to building a web-based application backed by pure XML (and as a matter of fact, XHTML) data. I've continued to develop the idea, and this month I'll explore some of the XSLT-related recipes that have emerged.

Oracle's Sandeepan Banerjee, director of product management for Oracle Server Technologies, made a fascinating comment when I interviewed him recently. "It's possible," he said, "that developers will want to stay within an XML abstraction for all their data sources". I suppose my continuing (some might say obsessive) experimentation with XPath and XSLT is an effort to find out what that would be like.

It's true that these technologies are still somewhat primitive and rough around the edges. Some argue that we've got to leapfrog over them to XQuery or to some XML-aware programming language in order to colonize the world of XML data. But it seems to me that we can't know where we need to go until we fully understand where we are. And there's no better reality check than a practical application. In order to set the stage for this month's installment, let's review the XHTML data formats for an evolving application that gathers and displays information about conference speakers and sessions. Here's the format of the speakers file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<body>
<style>
.speaker { margin-bottom: 10px }
.speakerName { font-weight: bold }
.speakerTitle { font-style: italic }
</style>
<speakers>
<div class="speaker" email="jon_udell@infoworld.com">
<div class="speakerName">
Jon Udell
</div>
<div class="speakerTitle">
lead analyst, InfoWorld
</div>
<div class="speakerBio">
<span class="bio"><p>See http://udell.roninhouse.com/bio.html</p></span>
</div>
</div>
</speakers>
</body>
Figure 1. The speakers "database"

And here's the format of the sessions file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<body>
<style>
.session { margin-bottom: 10px }
.sessionTitle { font-weight: bold }
.sessionTrack { font-style: italic }
</style>
<sessions>
<div class="session" id="01" day="3" start="10:30" end="12:00">
<div class="sessionTitle">Grade-school CMS lessons</div>
<div class="sessionTrack">general</div>
<div class="speakerEmail">jon_udell@infoworld.com</div>
<div class="speakerEmail">paul@zope-europe.org</div>
<div class="sessionDescription">
<span class="description"><p>Paul's introduction, Jon's keynote</p></span></div>
</div>
</sessions>
</body>
Figure 2. The sessions "database"
    

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Note that both of these formats suffer from a syndrome that might be called "div-itis". I've chosen to maintain a browser-friendly XHTML format to ensure that the raw data files are always viewable without special transformation. In fact, that was never completely true: the files contain some fictitious attributes (e.g. 'id' and 'start' in the speakers file) that aren't kosher in HTML, and don't display in the browser.

On balance, I still think it's handy to be able to browse the data file directly. But the techniques I'm exploring in the last column and this one don't require use of XHTML. Indeed, they'll work more easily when element names, rather than attributes, carry the semantics.

It's crucial to be able to visualize data. As browsers are increasingly able to apply CSS stylesheets to arbitrary XML, the XHTML constraint becomes less important. The Microsoft browser has been able to do CSS-based rendering of XML for a long time. Now Mozilla can too. Safari doesn't, yet, but I'll be surprised if it doesn't gain that feature soon. So while I'm sticking with XHTML for now, that may be a transient thing. Of more general interest are the ways in which XPath and XSLT can make XML data (of any flavor) interactive.

An XSLT-driven form generator

Here's a form, driven by both of the data sources, that's used to update information for a session:

Screen shot.
Figure 3. The session update form.

The script that builds the form is based on the Zope XSLT wrapper we explored last month. It accepts one argument: the id of a session. That id is used to create a series of form widgets of different types, drawing on different data sources:

nametypedata source(s)
sessionDaySELECTcurrent session element and ZODB property
sessionTitleINPUTcurrent session element
sessionTrackSELECTcurrent session element and ZODB property
sessionStartSELECTcurrent session element and ZODB property
sessionEndSELECTcurrent session element and ZODB property
sessionSpeakersSELECTcurrent session element and related speaker elements
sessionDescriptionTEXTAREAcurrent session element

Figure 3. Widget types and data sources for the session update form.

Two of these widgets -- sessionTitle and sessionDescription -- are easily made using XPath expressions to pick out the corresponding data from the sessions file, as shown in bold Figure 5. But the rest require more spelunking.

datafile = 'sessions.html'
id = context.REQUEST.form['id']

xsl = '''%s

<xsl:template match="//*[@id='%s']">
<form method="post" action="updateSession">
<div><input type="hidden" name="sessionId" value="{@id}"/></div>
<div>sessionDay: <select name="sessionDay">
%s
</select></div>
<div>sessionTitle: <input size="70" 
      name="sessionTitle" value="{*[@class='sessionTitle']}" /> </div>
<div>sessionTrack: <select name="sessionTrack">
%s
</select></div>
<div>sessionStart: <select name="sessionStart">
%s
</select></div>
<div>sessionEnd: <select name="sessionEnd">
%s
</select></div>
<div>sessionSpeakers: %s </div>
<div>sessionDescription: <textarea rows="10" cols="70" name="sessionDescription">
<xsl:copy-of select="*[@class='sessionDescription']/*" />
</textarea></div>
<div><input value="updateSession" type="submit"/></div>
</form>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="text()" />

</xsl:stylesheet>'''

xsl = xsl % (context.xsltPreamble(), id,
             context.makeList('sessionDays', "@day"),
             context.makeList('sessionTracks', "*[@class='sessionTrack']"),
             context.timesAsSelectWidget ( context.sessionsAsDict()[id]['start'] ),
             context.timesAsSelectWidget ( context.sessionsAsDict()[id]['end'] ), 
             context.speakersAsSelectWidget(id),
             )

result = context.xslt(xsl, datafile)

result = context.adjustSelectWidget ( result )
Figure 5.

Because this is a Zope application, the SELECT widgets for sessionDay and sessionTrack can use lists of values stored as ZODB properties. That means an authorized administrator -- a non-programmer, presumably -- can edit the lists using Zope's through-the-web management interface.

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