Return to: Ontology Building: A Survey of Editing Tools

Table 1.  Ontology editor survey results

Tool

Version

Release Date

Source

Modeling Features/Limitations

Base Language

Web Support & {Use}

Import/Export Formats

Graph View

Consistency Checks

Multi-user Support

Merging

Lexical Support

Information Extraction

Comments

More Information

Contact

The software tool for editing ontologies

Identifier of latest software release

The date latest version became available

The organization producing or supplying the software tool

The representational and logical qualities that can be expressed in the built ontology

The native or primary language used to encode the ontology

Support for Web-compliant ontologies (e.g., URIs), and {use of the software over the Web (e.g., browser client)}

Other languages the built ontology can be serialized in

The extent to which the built ontology can be created, debugged, edited and/or compared directly in graphic form

The degree to which the syntactic, referential and/or logical correctness of the ontology can be verified automatically

Features that allow and facilitate concurrent development of the built ontology

Support for easily comparing and merging independent built ontologies

Capabilities for lexical referencing of ontology elements (e.g., synonyms) and processing lexical content (e.g., searching/filtering ontology terms)

Capabilities for ontology-directed capture of target information from content and possibly subsequent elaboration of the ontology

Pertinent information about methodology, availability and support, additional features, etc.

Product or project Web site

E-mail contact for additional information

Apollo

1.0 beta 5

9/20/02

Knowledge Media Institute of Open University (UK )

Classes with slots plus relations; functions; hierarchical views.

OKBC model

No, but {server is planned}.

CLOS; OCML

No, but planned.

Yes

No

No

No

No

None

http://apollo.open.ac.uk/index.html

mailto:m.koss@open.ac.uk

CIRCA Taxonomy Administrator

1.1

3/1/02

Applied Semantics, Inc.

Maps designed taxonomies to built-in general lexical ontology using weighted concept clusters ("gist").  No definable relations.

Proprietary

No

(RDFS planned)

Browsing of ontology (not for editing).

Yes, limited.

No

Yes, via common mapping.

Yes

Via other CIRCA tools.

Part of CIRCA Auto-Categorizer.  A future (4Q'02) product may support relations and RDF import/export.

http://www.appliedsemantics.com/as_solutions_autocat_taxadmin.shtml

sales@appliedsemantics.com

CoGITaNT

5.1.0

9/14/02

LIRMM CNRS (France)

Conceptual graph (CG) modeling with rules; nested typed graphs; projections.

CG model

{Web based client access}

BCGCT; CGXML; XML

Browsing of ontology.

Yes

No

No

No

No

Open Source server, client and underlying C++ library; also Java API.

http://cogitant.sourceforge.net/

mailto:genest@info.univ-angers.fr

Coherence

2.0.1; 2.1

1/1/02 ; 4Q'02

Unicorn Solutions

Roundtrip transformation of ontologies from XML Schema and RDB schemas.  Class and property hierarchies; business rules.

XML

{Internet client for sharing ontologies}

XML Schema; RDB schema; XML; RDF(S); DAML+OIL (in 2.1 release)

No, but planned.

Schema synchronization and dependency (referential integrity) to show impact of changes.

(Yes, in 2.1 release)

(Planned)

Explicit mapping between lexicons is possible.

No, except as explicit mappings from RDB.

Ontology functions are part of an enterprise data integration product.  Additional input/output: entity-relation diagrams, COBOL Copybooks, HTML.

http://www.unicorn.com/pr-overview.htm

info@unicorn.com

Contextia

2.1

8/1/02

Modulant

Basic concepts and relations with datatypes are represented in schemas.

Express

Referenced ontologies (URLs); URIs

Entity relation diagrams; XML Schema

For editing single ontology (using FirstStep XG).

Express model (ISO 10303) validation; cross-ontology consistencies

No

Schema mapping including aggregation/generalization; "context" mapping.

Synonym mappings; term matching

No, except as explicit mappings from structured and semi-structured sources.

Ontology functions are part of an enterprise data integration product.  Ontology editing supported by FirstStep XG included with Contextia.

http://modulant.com/products/

abruno@modulant.com

COPORUM OntoBuilder

1.5

8/1/02

CognIT AS

Basic concepts and relations are represented with single inheritance.  Representation of concepts and relations extracted from content may be extended with WordNet information.

RDFS

{Web based repository; Web services in development}

DAML+OIL; RDF(S)

Browsing of ontology.

RDF consistency via repository.

(Under development)

Flat merging via Sesame.

Yes, based on WordNet and RDF Query Language; also in Sesame

Yes, based on meaning and distribution.

Tool embedded in On-To-Knowledge project tool set and requires Sesame RDF repository.  Focus on generating editable ontologies automatically from natural language documents.

http://ontoserver.cognit.no/

mailto:kristin.dahl@cognit.no

DAG-Edit

1.3.1.2

3/20/02

Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP)

Mixed part-of and isa concept hierarchies are represented along with synonym and search facilities.  No properties.

Directed (cyclic or acyclic) graph notation

{Read input via URLs}

Gene Ontology: RDF; Gene Ontology Postgres Database Schema (experimental); (DAML+OIL in GOET)

No, but tree view of flattened graph.

No

No

Yes, especially at the term level; also change history tracking.

Yes, for synonyms.

No, but allows regular expression search.

While intended for gene expression ontologies, it can be used for any taxonomy.  Generic version - GOET - is under development (alpha).

http://sourceforge.net/projects/geneontology

go@geneontology.org

DAMLImp (API)

0.7.0

7/15/02

AT&T Government Solutions

DAML+OIL constructs.  Basic Java library for analysis and manipulation of DAML+OIL ontologies.

DAML+OIL

URIs

DAML+OIL; RDF

No

No

Possible

No, but Ontology Manager aids mapping.

No

No

DARPA DAML project

http://codip.grci.com/Tools/Components.html

maria@grci.com

Differential Ontology Editor (DOE)

1.1

9/1/02

National Audiovisual Institute - INA (France )

Creates lattice of concepts and lattice of relationships between concepts, plus a set of instances.  Concepts cannot be defined intentionally with constraints.  Only types of the domains of relationships can be specified.  No axiom editor is provided.

XML & CGXML

Load ontology by URL

DAML+OIL; RDFS

No, but tree view.

Arity and type inheritance on relation domains; detects cycles in hierarchies.

No

No

Term definitions, synonyms and preference; methodology for differential definitions.

No

Supports methodology of Bruno Bachimont; to be used with other editors.

http://opales.ina.fr/public/

mailto:raphael.troncy@ina.fr

Disciple Learning Agent Shell

2.6

4/1/02

George Mason University , Learning Agents Laboratory

Semantic network representation with functions, extended to allow partially learned entities.  A hierarchy of objects and a hierarchy of features, with their descriptions, are represented as frames.  Also, general problem solving rules can be expressed with terms from the ontology.

OKBC-like

{Ontology summaries output in HTML}

Import: CYC ontologies

Browse classes, properties and individuals.

Syntactic consistency is always maintained; can commit multiple changes to persistent ontology in single operation.

No

Yes, two ontologies.

Search for terms

No

The shell is used by subject matter experts to rapidly form knowledge and reason about a specific domain.  Users, via a set of task reduction rules, create Disciple-RKF agents that can be combined into a single knowledge base.

http://lalab.gmu.edu/

mailto:tecuci@gmu.edu

Domain Ontology Management Environment (DOME)

2.0

8/1/02

Btexact Technologies

Concepts, relations and constraints are mapped to ER-like specifications.

CLASSIC & FaCT

{Web access}

OKBC; XML

ER diagrams

Yes

Yes

(Under development)

(Under development)

Semi-automatic and rule-based extraction from RDBs and web pages.

Available externally by individual agreements with limited support.

http://more.btexact.com/projects/ibsr/dome/index.htm

mailto:paul.d.obrien@bt.com

DUET

0.3.0

7/17/02

AT&T Government Solutions

Represents only UML static constructs available on class diagrams.

UML

URLs and namespaces are preserved in UML package naming

DAML

Editing using UML class diagrams (via Rose or Argo products)

Valid UML diagrams will produce valid DAML+OIL and conversely.

Supports multi-user capabilities of Rational Rose.

Multiple ontologies may be imported for comparison and merging.

No

No

DARPA DAML project.  Additional output: HTML views of UML models.  Also under development for GentileWare Poseidon UML.

http://codip.grci.com/Tools/Tools.html

mailto:grci@grci.com

Enterprise Semantic Platform (ESP) including Knowledge Toolkit

3.0

11/30/02 (expected)

Semagix, Inc

Description models composed of hierarchical categories and attributes with named relationships.  Type system for heterogeneous media content.  Instances supported by simple constraints on entities (cardinality, range) and entity properties, as well as inferencing.  Automatic assertion and maintenance of instances is possible.

Graph & XML

URIs; {partial HTML client; HTTP API}

XML; (RDF(S) is planned)

Connected tree browsing via TouchGraph

Yes, includes automatic and user interactive checks; dynamic content management.

Limited, user privileges prevent concurrent update of the same ontology parts.

No

Synonym based term normalization.

Automatic ontology directed classification and semantic annotation of heterogeneous content.

ESP is an application platform for semantic integration of heterogeneous content including media and enterprise databases.  It includes the Knowledge Toolkit for building ontologies.

http://www.semagix.com/

http://www.semagix.com/

EOR

1.01

7/10/01

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

RDF models as sets of triples.  Can be used to build, insert (infuse) and query instance knowledge bases for DAML+OIL, RDFS, etc. ontologies.

RDF

URIs

RDF

No

Validate RDF

No

Yes, by adding sets of RDF statements.

No

No

Developed by OCLC.

http://eor.dublincore.org/index.html

mailto:wagnerh@oclc.org

ExClaim & CommonKADS Workbench

release

12/1/01

National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (Romania )

Description logic modeling plus primitive problem solving actions.

DL model

No

CML

Browsing of ontology.

Knowledge verification and model validation (for DL representation).

User roles

No

No

No

Uses the CommonKADS Workbench based on SWI-Prolog and the XPCE GUI.

http://www.ici.ro/ici/expoeng/prodici/prod_12_22/pag_excl0.htm

mailto:badea@ici.ro

GALEN Case Environment (GCE)

5

8/1/02

Kermanog

Description logic terminological modeling without support for individuals.  Composite concepts are automatically classified according to their criteria (relationships with other concepts).  New concepts can be created interactively and according to user-defined rules. 

GRAIL

No

GRAIL

No, but filtered tree views allow editing.

Explicit grammatical and sensible sanctions are enforced when combining terms.

No

Compiles differences in concepts, hierarchies and criteria (properties) between two ontologies.

GALEN concept identifiers can be associated with synonyms and word forms.

No

Although, developed primarily as a medical terminology model builder, the tool can serve as a general purpose ontology editor.  GCE is part of the Classification Workbench with support to manage domain classification schemes.

http://www.kermanog.com/

Help@Kermanog.com

ICOM

1.1

4/25/01

Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy

EER (extended entity relations) modeling plus inheritance hierarchies, multidimensional aggregations and multiple schema relations.

Description logic

No

XML; UML (future)

Native editing of ER diagrams (UML diagrams planned).

Verify the specification via DL classifier (FaCT).

No

Supports inter-ontology mappings with graphical interface.

No

No

Graphically editing of native UML class diagrams planned for next release.

http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~franconi/icom/

mailto:franconi@cs.man.ac.uk

Integrated Ontology Development Environment

1.6.1

7/1/02

Ontology Works, Inc.

Distinguishes between properties and relations; allows contexts; default reasoning; temporal model relations; higher-arity relations; meta-properties and meta-relations.

OWL (based on KIF; not related to W3C WebOnt language of same name.)

{Web client - control panel}

KIF; UML; RDB; XML DTD

UML diagrams

Top-level ontology consistency per Guarino & Welty.

Yes

(slated for version 1.8 in Q2 2003)

Synonyms; English-language names

No

Supports OntoClean methodology (Guarino & Welty); supports relational and other databases

http://www.ontologyworks.com/

info@ontologyworks.com

IsaViz

1.1

5/23/02

W3 Consortium

Supports RDFS level specifications.  Can specify any model based on RDF such as DAML+OIL.

RDF model

URI namespaces

RDF; N-Triple; SVG

Native creation and editing of resources, literals and properties.

RDF model correctness.

No

Yes

No

No

None

http://www.w3.org/2001/11/IsaViz/

mailto:emmanuel.pietriga@xrce.xerox.com

JOE

Demo

7/21/99

University of South Carolina Center for IT

Basic concept and relations modeling ala ER.

KIF

No

ER (LDL++)

No

No

No

No

No

No

No current development.  Available as an applet.

http://www.cse.sc.edu/research/cit/demos/java/joe/

mailto:huhns@sc.edu

KAON (including OIModeller)

1.2

9/25/02

FZI Research Center & AIFB Institute, University of Karlsruhe

Extends RDFS with symmetric, transitive and inverse relations, relation cardinality, meta-modeling, etc.  Similar to F-Logic using axiom patterns.  Editor currently only supports concept hierarchy.

KAON (proprietary extension of RDFS)

{Browsing ontologies via KAON Portal; Web services API under development}

RDFS

No

Yes, for evolution of ontology.

Concurrent access control with transaction oriented locking and rollback.

(Under development)

Explicit lexical representation in model.  Synonyms; stemming; multilingual.

(Under development)

OIModeller is part of KAON tool suite for business applications that uses RDB persistence layer for scalability.  The ontology editor is under development.

http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

kaon-info@aifb.uni-karlsruhe.de

KBE -- Knowledge Base Editor (for Zeus AgentBuilding Toolkit)

1.3

3/22/00

Institute for Software Integrated Systems, Vanderbilt University

Zeus ontology model of concepts, attributes and values; multiple inheritance; modularization within a closed world model.  (Also defines agent interaction protocols.)

GME

No

Zeus ontology file (.edf)

UML-like diagrams for browsing only.

Yes

No

No

No

No

KBE is layered on top of the Zeus environment for building agents and extends the ontology editor functions.  The underlying GBE model specification system could be used as the basis of other ontology builders.

http://www.isis.vanderbilt.edu/Projects/micants/Tech/Demos/KBE/

mailto:gabor@vuse.vanderbilt.edu

LegendBurster Ontology Editor

1.1.2

10/5/02

GeoReference Online Ltd

Semantic network hierarchy of concepts, attributes, attribute values and explicitly represented truth-status flags.  Inheritance within hierarchies with lateral links.  Full reified relations; inverse relations (partial).  Metadata for all entities (at node level).  Separate tree list editor.

Proprietary (uses Prolog)

No

No, except across projects (proprietary).

No, except SVG export of instance and query graphs.

Partial, with strict attribute context checks but arities currently unchecked.

No

Yes, if from LegendBurster.  (User must check semantic consistency.)

Term search and alphabetical sort.

Semi-automatically capture and import vocabulary present in attribute tables of maps of interest.

While LedgendBurster is principally a GIS application, the Ontology Editor is suitable for general purpose ontology development.  Standalone editor with instance description and fuzzy query expected in early 2003.

http://www.georeferenceonline.com/

cpsmyth@georeferenceonline.com

LinKFactory Workbench

release

7/1/02

Language & Computing nv

Description logic T-box (terminological) and A-box (assertional) model.  Multiple inheritance over concepts and relationships; identification of necessary and sufficient criteria for concept definition.  Manage multiple conflicting ontologies in one T-box.  Versioning metadata.

Extended description logic

{LinKFactory Server supports Internet clients; WebInfo spider component.}

XML; RDF(S); DAML+OIL/OWL

No

Checks cover role restrictions, formal disjoints, sanctioning over subsumers, etc.

Yes, with author privileges and auditing specific to concept hierarchies.

Compares and links ontologies via a core ontology; related concepts matched on formal relationships and lexical information.

Strict concept/term distinction; lexeme-description; part-of-speech.  Search with wildcards.

Yes, via text analyses and automatic linkage to ontology.  WebInfo spider gleans domain-specific concepts/terms on Web.

LinKFactory Workbench includes a database server, application server and clients.  Originally designed for very large medical ontologies.  It has a Java beans API and optional Application Generators for semantic indexing, automatic coding, and information extraction.

http://www.landc.be/

info@landc.be

Medius Visual Ontology Modeler

0.18 beta

7/1/02

Sandpiper Software, Inc

UML modeling of ontologies with frame systems support.

UML with extensions for OKBC model

URI support in DAML generator; {read-only browser support from Rose}

XML Schema; RDF; DAML+OIL

Yes, as UML diagrams via Rose.

Limited

Yes

Native Rose model merging support

Search for terms and relations.

No

Operates as a Rational Rose plug-in.

http://www.sandsoft.com/products.html

mailto:mdutra@sandsoft.com

NeoClassic

release

12/15/00

Bell Labs (Lucent Technologies)

Framework representation of descriptions, concepts, roles, individuals and rules.  Concepts can be derived from necessary and sufficient conditions for individual membership.  Subsumption and classification are inherent inference.  (Command line editor only.)

DL model

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

This C++ implementation of the original CLASSIC system is the only currently supported version.

http://www-out.bell-labs.com/project/classic/

mailto:pfps@research.bell-labs.com

OilEd

3.4

4/12/02

University of Manchester Information Management Group

DAML constraint axioms; same-class-as; limited XML Schema datatypes; creation metadata; allows arbitrary expressions as fillers and in constraint axioms; explicit use of quantifiers; one-of lists of individuals; no hierarchical property view.

DAML+OIL

RDF URIs; limited namespaces; very limited XML Schema

RDFS; SHIQ

Browsing Graphviz files of class subsumption only.

Subsumption and satisfiability (FaCT)

No

No

Limited synonyms

No

None

http://oiled.man.ac.uk/

mailto:seanb@cs.man.ac.uk

OLR3 Schema Editor

1

4/1/02

Institute for Information Systems, University of Hannover

Instantiation and editing of external or custom schemas conforming to RDFS.  Concept-specific filtering to present choice of legal properties.

RDFS

RDF URIs; {browser based}

RDF

No

Yes, for property constraints, etc.

No

No

No

No

Part of the Open Learning Repository Version 3 (OLR3) system for course specification.

http://www.kbs.uni-hannover.de/~tkunze (German only)

mailto:nejdl@kbs.uni-hannover.de

OntoBuilder

1.0

6/13/02

Institute for Medical Information,  Statistics and Epidemiology University of Leipzig

Manages compilation of domain terms, their description, and contexts using natural language.

Natural language; (logical representation language planned)

{Web access}

No

No

Not automatically

Yes, with editor, moderator and administrator user group types.

No

Representation of synonyms; search on terms and descriptions; lexical rules for term input

No

Semantic analysis using a formal model based on a top level ontology and a logic-based representation language are planned.  Domain focus is on medicine.

http://www.kompetenznetz-lymphome.de/KlinischeStudien/Qualitaetssicherung/DataDictionary/DataDictionary.html

ontobuilder@kompetenznetz-lymphome.de

Onto-Builder

3.0

5/1/02

University of Savoy ; Ontologos

Distinguishes "what contributes to the essence of things and what describes them", defining concepts by their "specific difference".  Thus, logical and set-oriented semantics are derived a posteriori.

LOK (Language for Ontological Knowledge) written in Smalltalk

{Web access}

Input: DAML-OIL; XML, LOK
Output: DAML+OIL; XML; KIF; Conceptual Graph

Yes, for browsing.

Yes, based on logic and on the specific-difference theory.

User groups.

Yes, for ontologies based on the OK Model.

Lexicon management including synonyms

Extraction of lexicons from texts with OK lexical tools (based on Brill's tagger).

Part of Ontological Knowledge Station.  Building OK ontologies is based on a dedicated methodology.

http://ontology.univ-savoie.fr/;
http://www.ontologos.com

mailto:roche@univ-savoie.fr

OntoEdit

2.5.2

8/6/02

Ontoprise GmbH

F-Logic axioms on classes and relations; algebraic properties of relations; creation of metadata; limited DAML property constraints and datatypes; no class combinations, equivalent instances.

F-Logic

Resource URIs

RDFS; F-Logic; DAML+OIL (limited); RDB

Yes, via plug-in

Yes, via OntoBroker

Transaction locking at the object and whole subtree levels.

Yes

Multiple lexicons via plug-in

No

Free and commercial (Professional) versions are available, with continuing development of the commercial version.

http://www.ontoprise.de/com/ontoedit.htm

mailto:wenke@ontoprise.de

Ontolingua with Chimaera

1.0.649; 0.1.42

11/214/01; 7/24/02

Stanford Knowledge Systems Lab

OKBC model with full KIF axioms.

Ontolingua

{Web access to service.}

Import & Export: DAML+OIL; KIF; OKBC; Loom; Prolog; Ontolingua; CLIPS.  Import only: Classic; Ocelot; Protégé.

No

Elaborate with Chimaera; Theorem proving (via JTP)

Write-only locking; user access levels.

Semi-automated via Chimaera

Search for terms in all loaded ontologies.

No

Online service only (at http://www-ksl-svc.stanford.edu); Chimaera is being enhanced under DARPA funding in 2002.

http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/software/ontolingua/
http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/software/chimaera/

ontology-librarian@ksl.stanford.edu

Ontology Builder & Server

1.1

9/1/01

Verticalnet, Inc.

Classes with slots, datatypes and cardinality constraints; node documentation; inclusion.  No axioms.

Partial OKBC model

Fully qualified names; {HTTP browser and server}

RDFS & DAML+OIL (future)

No

Limited to term validity and graph cycles.

User roles and security; global locking.

Simple difference and merge process.

Yes

No

Currently available only as part of their enterprise solution product.

http://www.verticalnet.com/technology/components/process.html

info@verticalnet.com

Ontology Directed Extraction (ODE) Tools

alpha

4/8/02

XSB, Inc.

Multiple inheritance subsumption class hierarchies. Support for typed attributes of classes and relations between classes.  Supports schema and object information.

Tabled Prolog

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes, with limitations.

Yes

Yes

Tool supports construction of domain ontologies used to guide lexical classification and information extraction.

http://www.xsb.com/ode.asp

mailto:warren@xsb.com

Ontopia Knowledge Suite

1.3.4

8/28/02

Ontopia AS

Constraint modeling specifically and solely for Topic Map representations.

Ontopia Schema Language (OSL)

{Web access and Web API}

OSL; XTM; LTM (import only); HyTM

No, but tree view.

Validation against the OSL schema.

Full concurrency and transaction support when running with RDBMS.

For ontologies and instance data, but not (currently) for constraints.

Full-text search

No, but application framework allows this.

Although primarily an IDE for Topic Map applications, the framework supports ontologies.

http://www.ontopia.net/solutions/products.html

info@ontopia.net

Ontosaurus

1.9

3/28/02

USC Information Sciences Institute

Rich KB browser with simple editing; contexts; same-class-as; metaclasses.

Loom

{HTTP browser}

KIF; Loom; OKBC

Browsing class hierarchy

Yes

Global locking

No

No

No

Online access to KBs hosted on CL HTTP server.

http://www.isi.edu/isd/ontosaurus.html

mailto:tar@isi.edu

OntoTerm

0.9.98

6/1/99

University of Malaga

Concept and property hierarchies with concept instances; properties distinguished as attributes or relations.  Metadata (natural language definitions).

n/a

{HTML output}

n/a

No, but cross-linked tree views indicate legal element associations or types, and allow editing.

No

No

No

Word lists

No

Although intended to be a terminology management system, OntoTerm can be used for general ontology development.  Ongoing development and support of the software is unknown.

http://www.ontoterm.com/

info@ontoterm.com

OpenCyc Knowledge Server

0.6.0b

4/3/02

Cyc Corp.

FOPC extended with contexts, equality, default reasoning, skolemization, quantification over predicates.  (Basic ontology editing via KB Browser Create Term tool.)

CycL (& SubL)

{HTTP server}

DAML+OIL (native KB only)

No

Directed inferencing and queries; truth maintenance

Yes

No

Yes, via Cyc-NL with KB-linked lexicon for syntactic and semantic disambiguation.

English parsing possible with Cyc-NL.

Knowledge base subset and browser only.  Future release of ontology building tools: Template-based knowledge entry, Index Overlap, Similarity Tool and Salient Descriptor.

http://www.opencyc.org/

mailto:reed@cyc.com

OpenKnoMe

5.4c

9/27/02

University of Manchester Medical Informatics

Description logic terminological modeling without support for individuals or type system.  Arbitrarily complex structures may be composed from primitive concepts and relations.  Role hierarchy with inverses, and reasoning over relationships such as part-of.  No formal negation, disjunction or conjunction.  Limited support for cardinality.  No reasoning over numbers or ranges.  Toolset for managing intermediate representations.

GRAIL

Not as configured.

CLIPS; XML

No

Logical coherence ala DL and a meta-model system for declaring inherited semantic constraints and permissions.  Also, declarative query language (GQL) can be used to author checks of modeling consistency.

User roles and read/write privileges; version control.  Users see each other's changes only when they check modules back in.

Via explicit mappings (reifications) to GALEN Common Reference Model.  Focus is on linking rather than mapping to reference model.

Can use GALEN language module that links its concept identifiers with synonyms and word forms, and provides segment grammar for semantic links.

No

Although, developed primarily as a medical terminology model builder, the tool can serve as a general purpose ontology editor.  Currently requires OpenGALEN terminology server and CINCOM VisualWorks runtime environment.

http://www.topthing.com/

mailto:d-and-j@topthing.com

PC Pack 4

1.0 beta (unreleased)

4/27/2001 (predecessor)

Epistemics Ltd

Knowledge acquisition and modeling.  Multiple inheritance; n-ary relations; rules and methods.  User definable templates for modeling formalisms like CommonKADS and Moka.

XML

{HTML output via XSLT}

XML

ER diagrams; class hierarchies; OO views

Only logically consistent models can be created.

Yes

No

No

No

Suite of many integrated KADS inspired tools.

http://www.epistemics.co.uk/

mailto:Tim.Clarke@epistemics.co.uk

Protégé-2000

1.7; 1.8 beta

4/10/02 ; 10/22/02

Stanford Medical Informatics

Multiple inheritance concept and relation hierarchies (but single class for instance); meta-classes; instances specification support; constraint axioms ala Prolog, F-Logic, OIL and general axiom language (PAL) via plug-ins.

OKBC model

Limited namespaces; {can run as applet; access through servlets}

RDF(S); XML Schema; RDB schema via Data Genie plug-in; (DAML+OIL backend due 4Q'02 from SRI)

Browsing classes & global properties via GraphViz plug-in; nested graph views with editing via Jambalaya plug-in.

Plug-ins for adding & checking constraint axioms: PAL; FaCT.

No, but features under development.

Semi-automated via Anchor-PROMPT.

WordNet plug-in; wildcard string matching (API only).

No

Support for CommonKADS methodology.

http://protege.stanford.edu/index.html

protege-help@smi.stanford.edu

RDFAuthor

alpha

5/9/02

Damian Steer

Create RDF instance data against RDFS schemas.

RDF

URIs; {Web links; remote RDF query}

XML; RDF

Creating and editing instances as graphs.

RDF errors

No

No

No

No

Currently available for Mac OS X; also as a Java Swing application.  Additional output: SVG, PNG, TIFF, PDF.

http://rdfweb.org/people/damian/RDFAuthor/

mailto:dm_steer@hotmail.com

RDFedt

1.02

2/25/01

Jan Winkler

Textual language editor only.

RDF model

RSS

RDFS; DAML; OIL; Shoe

No, but tree view.

Writing mistakes only.

No

No

No

No

None

http://www.jan-winkler.de/dev/e_rdfe.htm

mailto:info@jan-winkler.de

SemTalk

1.1.3

8/18/02

Semtation GmbH

Subset of RDFS and DAML extended with inverse relations and process modeling.

Visual Basic

URI namespaces; {distributed development}

XML; F-Logic; ARIS models; Bonapart models

Yes, for design and browsing.

Subsumption and name usage across multiple models; meta-model specific checks.

No

Yes, with simple filtering.

Synonyms; homonyms; stop words; some POS; glossaries via Babylon .

No, but interfaces to appropriate Ontoprise and TextTech products.

Microsoft Visio extension and SmartTags.  Additional output include: Rational Rose UML class diagrams, RDF annotated HTML, MS Excel, MS Project, SAP IPC, HTML/VML.

http://www.semtalk.com/

mailto:info@semtation.com

Specware

3.1

6/1/01

Kestrel Technology

Logical and functional axioms.  (Text based language editor only.)

Metaslang

No

None

No

Proofs via Gandalf and SNARK.

No

Yes, via composition operations (e.g., co-limits).

No

No

While primarily a tool for the formal, compositional specification of software, Specware can be used to define domain theories.

http://www.specware.org/

info@kt-llc.com

SymOntos

2.2

4/1/02

Institute for the Analysis of Information Systems - CNR (Italy )

XML Schema modeling constructs with subsumption of classes and relations; specified relation types of isa, part-of, similarity and predicate.  Business-oriented predefined classes such as: actor, process, event, and message.

XML

{Web access}

XML; RDF(S)

(Planned release 4Q'02)

Concept hierarchy validity, range restrictions and graph cycles.

Simple user groups

Possible via XML encoding.

Word lists of synonyms; term query support.

No

Online service; academic level support; can support collaborative ontology building.  SymOntoX version in progress with language for process, actor, event and goal.

http:www.symontos.org

mailto:Missikoff@iasi.rm.cnr.it

Taxonomy Builder

2.0

8/1/02

Semansys Technologies

General taxonomy of elements assigned data types and substitution groups.  Predefined XBRL relation types via links.

XML Schema

XML namespaces; {taxonomy browser; Internet client}

XML; XML Schema

No

Yes, relative to XBRL core schema.

No

Yes

No

No

Available separately or as part of the Semansys XBRL Composer Professional.  Additional outputs include CSV, TXT and SQL.

http://www.semansys.com/about_composer.html

sales@semansys.com

TOPKAT

prototype

6/17/95

AIAI, University of Edinburgh

Supports representation of the various models of CommonKADS (circa 1995).  Underlying these models are dictionaries of concepts, properties, property values, inferences, and tasks.  Production rules can be represented using a combination of these primitives.

HARDY and CLIPS

No

CML

Native graph view for editing.

Limited

No

No, except for models within a single ontology.

Term equivalence through the data dictionary.

Simple natural language parser can identify possible concepts and property values in a protocol transcript.

The Open Practical Knowledge Acquisition Toolkit (TOPKAT) supports CommonKADS knowledge acquisition techniques including: laddered grid, card sort, repertory grid, protocol analysis.  Final diagrams also output in HTML.  No support.

http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/~jkk/topkat.html

mailto:J.Kingston@ed.ac.uk

Visio for Enterprise Architects

2002 SR-1

4/2/02

Microsoft Corp.

Most object-role modeling (ORM) constructs, but imposes relational logical constraints on specification.

ORM

No

XML (via add-on); DDL

ORM class diagrams

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

ORM modeler may be effective for specifying domain ontologies; part of Visual Studio.NET Enterprise Architect

http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/techinfo/articles/developerproductivity/orm.asp

http://customerservice.support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=fh;en-us;CSSCONTACTFIND&style=flat

WebKB

2.0

9/10/02

Distributed Systems Technology Centre (DSTC), Australia

Basic conceptual graph modeling and manipulation that includes contexts, constraint checking and querying.  Can derive new statements (e.g., relations) from necessary and sufficient conditions.

FS (extended CGs)

URIs for element references; Web access of KBs; {CGI and HTML interfaces; Web script language}

Export (partial only): DAML/RDF; CGIF; KIF

Hyperbolic-like browsing (of taxonomies only) via KVO's OntoRama.

Syntactic and logical including transitive cycles, disjoint relations, relation signatures.  Also lexical checking.

KB sharing restricts editing so each element has an associated author.

No, but separate ontologies can share the same KB "framework" including a WordNet based upper ontology.

WordNet nouns and adjectives; aliases; element searching by author or name.

No

On-line service (www.webkb.org); also source and binary code available.

http://meganesia.int.gu.edu.au/~phmartin/WebKB/doc/generalDoc.html

mailto:philippe.martin@gu.edu.au

WebODE

2.0.6

7/10/02

Technical University of Madrid UPM

Concepts (class and instance), attributes and relations of taxonomies; disjoint and exhaustive class partitions; part-of and ad-hoc binary relations; properties of relations; constants; axioms; and multiple inheritance.  Inference engine for subset of OKBC primitives and axioms.

Prolog translation of FOL and frames per OKBC model.

URIs as imported terms; {browser client}

DAML+OIL; RDFS; X-CARIN; FLogic; Prolog; XML

Native graph view with editing of classes, relations, partitions, meta-properties, etc.

Type and cardinality constraints; disjoint classes and loops, taxonomy style (OntoClean), etc.

Yes, with synchronization; authentication and access restrictions per user groups.

Unsupervised (ODEMerge methodology) using synonym and hyperonym tables; custom dictionaries and merging rules.

Synonyms and abbreviations; (EuroWordNet support under development)

Using WebPicker (UNSPSC, RosettaNet)

Supports Methontology methodology (Fernández-López et al, 1999); offered as online service; successor to ODE; ontology storage in RDB.

http://delicias.dia.fi.upm.es/webODE/

webode@delicias.dia.fi.upm.es

WebOnto

2.3

5/1/02

Knowledge Media Institute of Open University (UK )

Multiple inheritance and exact coverings; meta-classes; class level support for prolog-like inference.

OCML

{Web service deployment site}

Import: RDF; Export: RDFS, GXL, Ontolingua, OIL

Native graph view of class relationships.

For OCML code

Global write-only locking with change notification.

No

No

(Available from OCML based tool MnM.)

Online service only.

http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/webonto/

mailto:j.b.domingue@open.ac.uk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © 2002 Michael Denny

NOTE

Concept

Instance

Relation

We frequently elected to retain the words of the software provider in these tool descriptions.  Consequently, the alternative terms listed to the right may be used with roughly the same meaning.

Concept, class, category, type, term, entity, set and thing.

Instance, individual, resource, extension, description, object and entity.

Relation, relationship, property, function, role, slot, attribute, association, criterion, constraint of, feature and predicate.